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The media industry is rapidly moving towards transport of uncompressed and compressed media content streams (flows) over packet switched facility networks. Media transport protocols (such as SMPTE ST 2022-6, VSF TR-03, IEEE AVB, etc.) are currently being adopted by equipment manufacturers. While these address the transport of live media content, they do not address how these flows will be managed in professional media networks, nor do the standards address a standard methodology for manufactures in this space to ensure interoperability.
Several concepts of flow management have been proposed, but the feasibility of these approaches in media networks need to be investigated. Many of these technologies are under development today, and there is currently no timeline on when these technologies will be available for professional media networks or when open standards will be developed. In addition, it is unclear how control messages will be transmitted to switching devices in a standard way. Existing solutions (e.g., OpenFlow, NETCONF, SMPTE ST 2071) could be utilized, but it is unclear today if they will fulfill the requirements for management of low latency flows in professional media networks. Furthermore, the media industry needs to define metrics on how network congestion can be measured to enable efficient stream control.
There might also be a lack of understanding in the media industry of network management technologies, how they will be applied in professional media networks consistent with operational needs in the tele-production community. This report seeks to address these issues.
In 1975 one of the most prolific SMPTE Standards, then called ANSI C98.12.1975 now called ST 12-1 Time and Control Code, was published which allowed the industry to consolidate around what became known as SMPTE Time Code. These 32 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) bits would be used in ways that no one had imagined at the time. Today, theatrical shows, concerts, music recording, and of course television, just to name a few, make use of this standard. ST 12-1 was voted the top Standard of the past 100 years in a poll taken recently of the Standards Community.
The report describes the process to collect the User Requirements, the results of surveys conducted and the comments captured at each of the three Time Code Summits that were held in Hollywood, London, and New York City. It concludes with a summary of the results from the author’s perspective.
MXF was developed as a versatile professional wrapping format to describe existing media encapsulation practices as well as providing facilities for new applications. As a result of this evolution, there are many places where MXF is able to store Time Code values.
MXF can store Time Code values as Metadata in the headers as well as capturing Time Code values from media streams and storing them in a file. The HANC, VANC & VBI specifications from SMPTE as well as de-facto specifications contain rules for the placement of Time Code values. MXF has multiple places in which VANC or VBI information may be carried. The end result is that multiple MXF Time Code values might exist for each frame in a file.
The goal of this report is to look at the requirements for the use of Time Code within different MXF applications. The Study Group requested a list of Time Code applications from the participants. The sections of this report cover the applications that were identified.
Corrected on November 14, 2017.
This JT-NM Roadmap shows the evolution of the standards and specifications enabling the JT-NM Reference Architecture. The JT-NM Roadmap of Networked Media Open Interoperability shows which standards and specifications enable the JT-NM Reference Architecture, how the range of underlying technologies is expected to evolve and when it is expected that an interoperable multi-vendor system can be built around standards / specifications
The ST 2059 Standard is a complex document and utilizes an external Standard, IEEE-1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP). PTP is a now-mature technology used in many industries for high precision timing, but not in broadcast.
This report includes:
This SMPTE TC-30MR study report discusses the UMID applications specifically for the MXF technology.
The UMID, or Unique Material IDentifier, is the SMPTE standard unique identifier of an audiovisual material. Based on the recommendations by the EBU/SMPTE Task Force envisioning the file-based media production workflow we have today, it was initially SMPTE standardized in 2000 prior to the MXF technology in 2004. As a mandatory component of an MXF file, the UMID has been widely spread in the Media & Entertainment (M&E) industry by using the MXF file as a vehicle. But it has been eventually useless in practice so far because of lack of industry standard technologies called UMID Application Principles and UMID Resolution Protocol. The UMID Application Principles are fundamental rules for the UMID to be treated in a reliable and consistent way over the media products from multiple vendors, which have been standardized in the latest SMPTE RP 205 in 2014. The UMID Resolution Protocol is a standard method for a given UMID to be converted into the corresponding URL of a material uniquely identified by the UMID, for which an intensive development is ongoing in SMPTE.
In this study report, based on those standard technologies, the UMID applications specifically for the MXF technology are discussed. Thanks to the MXF’s logical structure, which realizes what we can observe at the playout of an MXF file is not always identical with what is stored within the MXF file; an MXF file has three kinds of UMID. The first two are called MXF Material Package UID and File Package UID, both of which take a form of the 32-byte Basic UMID.
The capture and display of content with a dynamic range that approaches real scenes has been a long term challenge. Limitations come from the choice of imaging technologies such as early pick-up devices (Vidicon, Image Orthicon) and the traditional video display device, the CRT. Until recently the industry has accepted that content capture and display technologies have inherent limitations that would limit the ability to reproduce more realistic High Dynamic Range (HDR) images.
Traditional capture techniques using film camera negative that has been used in motion picture and television episodic production has allowed more scene dynamic range to be captured by the film negative that was ultimately shown to the viewer in the film print.
The European Broadcasting Union (EBU), Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) and the Video Services Forum (VSF) have announced the release of the JT-NM Reference Architecture (RA) v1.0 document; a collection of models, best practices, and frameworks intended to facilitate interoperability in networked media systems.
In this first version, the RA focuses on three foundational frameworks. The foundational frameworks provide our industry with a common, interoperable approach to how devices and services are uniquely identified, discovered and how their capabilities are registered. The RA also provides a timing model supporting PTP and SMPTE 2059 Standards. These frameworks are building blocks that will enable networked media to deliver new workflow possibilities.
This report from the Joint Task Force on Networked Media (JT-NM)1 presents the detailed requirements of the Minimum Viable System (MVS) that was introduced in the “Phase 2 Interim Report December 2014”2. MVS is a sample System Architecture that addresses a well-known operational scenario of minimal scope.
This set of requirements could change or be expanded in the future to reflect the development of the JT-NM Reference Architecture.
The Theatre B-Chain Study Group was formed in March 2010 in response to the work statement that was approved by the SMPTE Standards Committee on 4 March 2010. The goal of the group was to study the
current standards and practices regarding B-chain electroacoustic response and calibration, and make recommendations for work that SMPTE should undertake in these areas. During this 2.5-year study, the group tested many aspects of the subject.
The goal of Phase 2 is to create a system reference architecture. This will be a key tool to guide the industry towards interoperability. It will achieve this by providing a template based on a generalized solution. It will include a set of patterns that can be composed together to form a specific solution. It will also provide a common vocabulary with which to facilitate discussing implementations between the different levels (i.e. management, integrators, architects, developers, sellers, etc.) from the different domains (i.e. broadcast, IT) involved.
There are seven identified SMPTE standard or recommended practice documents that identify or refer to methods of measuring screen luminance. Each document identifies a different specific methodology for measurement. While each of these approaches has some validity, each will result in different measured screen characteristics from the point of view of peak brightness and light distribution. This report details the approach we took to the study group task, and provides recommendations for the measurement approaches.
The JTFFFMI has an ultimate goal to create greater efficiencies and cost savings for exchange of file-based content. The group’s initial focus will be to gather and analyze requirements for a machine-generated and readable file interchange and delivery specification — including standardized and common structured metadata — for the professional media industry. To achieve this, one of its initial actions is the publication of a survey to collect data on user requirements.
This effort had its origins within the Coalition for Innovative Media Management (CIMM). CIMM is a group of buyers and sellers of advertising-supported media formed to promote innovation and explore new, high-quality ways to measure audiences across traditional and new media in the United States. CIMM began in 2009, founded by leading television content providers, media agencies, and advertisers.
Monophonic sound was transformative for the art of motion pictures. Every sound format that followed has attempted to improve the sense of reality by adding more channels feeding ever more speakers. With rare exception, those speakers were located behind the screen and around the audience, effectively on the same horizontal plane. Even though the ensuing decades transitioned from optical film to digital media, the planar sound concept lives on with 5.1 and 7.1 soundfield configurations. (In this document, any references to “5.1” also include 7.1 unless noted.)
The movie industry is now evolving toward an expanding range of audio formats with additional audio signals driving height and overhead speakers to achieve a more immersive experience. Broadly stated, the Immersive Audio Study Group (IASG) was formed to explore ways to deliver these capabilities using a common distribution method and possible shared B-chain attributes.
The design and architecture of Professional Media Networks (PMN) is becoming increasingly important with the ever-increasing use of shared packet switched networks (PSN). These PMNs are used for applications such as live contribution and production, post-production, and presentation. Typically these are built upon Internet Protocol networks and used for the production of media, including the carriage of media essence (audio & video), metadata, synchronization and control traffic. Where media traffic coexists with other sorts of communication and business traffic (multi-service networks), it is particularly important to balance the requirements of media production network traffic with other types of network traffic. This other traffic may or may not be related to the Professional Media Network workflows.
This report, dated 28 March 2014, represents the final considerations of the Society of Motion Pictures and Television Engineers (SMPTE) study group investigating the Ultra-High Definition Television (UHDTV) Ecosystem. The report provides recommendations for further work, which will be further analyzed within SMPTE.
The industry has developed technologies for increasing image pixel arrays, capturing higher frame rates, extended color gamut and other image parameters beyond those currently defined for High Definition Television (HDTV).
Image formats for UHDTV have been approved by, SMPTE and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). It has been indicated that commercial deployment of UHDTV could begin as early as 2014 for UHDTV1 and 2016 for UHDTV2. While the intent is distribution of the content to the home, overall questions for the professional industry sector are:
Final Report: Analyses and Results
First Report: User Requirements